PASADENA, Calif.--Much of the heat within our planet is caused by the radioactive decay of the elements uranium and thorium. Now, an international team of particle physicists using a special detector in Japan has demonstrated a novel method of measuring that radioactive heat.
In the July 28 issue of the journal Nature, the physicists report on measurements of electron antineutrinos they have detected from within Earth by using KamLAND, the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector. These data indicate that Earth itself generates about 20 billion kilowatts (or terawatts) of power from underground radioactive decays.
According to Robert McKeown, a physicist at the California Institute of Technology and one of the authors of the paper, the results show that this novel approach to geophysical research is feasible. "Neutrinos and their corresponding antiparticles, antineutrinos, are remarkable for their ability to pass unhindered through large bodies of matter like the entire Earth, and so can give geophysicists a powerful method to access the composition of the planet's interior."
McKeown credits the discovery with the unique KamLAND experimental apparatus. The antineutrino detector was primarily built to study antineutrinos emitted by Japanese nuclear power plants. The KamLAND experiment has already resulted in several breakthroughs in experimental particle physics, including the 2002 discovery that antineutrinos emitted by the power plants do indeed change flavor as they travel through space. This result helped solve a longstanding mystery related to the fact that the number of neutrinos from the sun was apparently too small to be reconciled with our current understanding of nuclear fusion. The new results turn from nuclear reactors and the sun to the Earth below. To detect geoneutrinos (or antineutrinos arising from radioactive decays within the planet), the researchers carefully shielded the detector from background radiation and cosmic sources, and also compensated for the antineutrinos that have come from Japan's 53 nuclear power reactors.
The decays of both uranium and thorium have been well understood for decades, with both decays eventually resulting in stable isotopes of lead. KamLAND is the first detector built with the capability to detect the antineutrinos from these radioactive decays.
The researchers plan to continue running the KamLAND experiments for several years. By reducing the trace residual radioactivity in the detector, they hope to increase the sensitivity of the experiment to geoneutrinos and neutrinos from the sun. The additional data will also allow them to better constrain the oscillation of neutrinos as they change their flavors, and perhaps to catch neutrinos from interstellar space if any supernovae occur in our galaxy.
Other members of McKeown's team at Caltech's Kellogg Radiation Lab are Christopher Mauger, a postdoctoral scholar in physics, and Petr Vogel, a senior research associate emeritus in physics. Other partners in the study include the Research Center for Neutrino Science at Tohuku University in Japan, the University of Alabama, the University of California at Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Drexel University, the University of Hawaii, the University of New Mexico, the University of North Carolina, Kansas State University, Louisiana State University, Stanford University, Duke University, North Carolina State University, the University of Tennessee, the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, and the University of Bordeaux in France.
The project is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Written by Robert Tindol